Similarly, none of the genes associated with adipogenesis were differentially expressed, although all three tested genes were expressed (or and It is important that these data are interpreted with caution

Similarly, none of the genes associated with adipogenesis were differentially expressed, although all three tested genes were expressed (or and It is important that these data are interpreted with caution. of three genes was detected: and (Table?1)Of these, (and that are usually associated with pluripotency, was not detected in any of the analyzed samples (PO-MSCs, BM-MSCs and HDFs). MSCs-associated genes This group of genes is the largest, containing 32 genes, and at the same times the most diverse. Twenty-three of these genes were expressed in PO-MSCs samples (Table?2), of which ten were differentially expressed when compared to BM-MSCs and HDFs: (((((((((((((and (((((and were not expressed in any of the analyzed samples. All three genes associated with tenogenesis were expressed in PO-MSCs, BM-MSCs and in HDFs, of which (((and were not expressed in any sample. Similarly, none of the genes associated with adipogenesis were differentially expressed, although all three tested genes were expressed (or and It is important that these data are interpreted with caution. From existing literature it is known that primers for can be unreliable [44]. Moreover, the expression of could also be associated with MSCs and not only with pluripotency [45]. On the other hand, PO-MSCs did not express some other important pluripotency-related genes, e.g. and therefore, we may conclude that PO-MSCs cannot be associated with pluripotency at this point. Furthermore, in PO-MSCs, several genes related to differentiation processes were expressed, although only four genes (and (known also as CD13), which was down-regulated in PO-MSCs in comparison with both BM-MSCs and HDFs, influences the MSCs adhesion, migration and vascular network formation, and its expression is important for the normal behaviour Ionomycin of MSCs [60]. On the other hand, the expression of could be related to pathogenesis, since its expression is connected with the invasion of cancer Ionomycin cells, including human ovarian cancers [61, 62]. Two other differentially expressed genes ((CD166) is a common MSCs marker detected in MSCs isolated from various sources Mouse monoclonal to SORL1 [63], including granulosa cells [64]. It works as a cell adhesion molecule and is involved in immunological processes as well as in tumor growth and metastasis [65, 66]. The gene (also known as CD51) Ionomycin encodes the molecule (integrin v), which is involved in cell adhesion and is important for controlling the stem cell niche [67]. Other differentially expressed genes are mostly involved in the differentiation processes, which indicate the presence of a heterogeneous population of cells, as previously discussed. An important question arises: why are cells showing MSCs characteristics resident in adult human ovaries? They are probably the residue from the period of fetal gonadal development and therefore retain some stemness that allows them to regulate the ovarian function, particularly (to some extent) regeneration. This is important, since during ovulation the oocytes are released monthly from the ovaries and the ovarian surface is damaged. The MSCs could also have some influence on the follicular development with the production of active molecules or in some other way, considering that they are most likely located in the vicinity of follicles. Moreover, it is not excluded that they could include a subpopulation of granulosa cells showing the characteristics of MSCs [64]. In conclusion, the cortex of healthy adult human ovaries can be a source of cells showing typical MSCs characteristics in conditions in vitro and for this Ionomycin reason we named these cells PO-MSCs. These cells express genes related to MSCs, such as We propose putative ovarian mesenchymal stem cells (PO-MSCs) as a novel type of MSCs which share some similarities with bone marrow-derived MSCs but nevertheless show distinct and specific characteristics..