HER2 is an oncogene and its upregulation is manifested in several malignancies such as breast, ovarian, endometrial, and stomach cancers and is thus a thoroughly studied model for cancer therapy

HER2 is an oncogene and its upregulation is manifested in several malignancies such as breast, ovarian, endometrial, and stomach cancers and is thus a thoroughly studied model for cancer therapy. technology and has applications in several human disease-related problems. Nanotechnology Caftaric acid refers to the understanding and control of matter at dimensions between approximately 1 and 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications. Dimensions between approximately Caftaric acid 1 and 100 nanometers are known as the nanoscale. Unusual physical, chemical, and biological properties can emerge in materials at this scale and these properties may differ in important ways from the properties of bulk materials and single atoms or molecules. Caftaric acid Nanotechnology has been applied in varied fields like electronics, energy, space, medicine, food, and chemical sensors and in molecular manufacturing. Nanomedicine is a branch that focuses on Caftaric acid application of nanotechnology in faster diagnosis, enhanced therapeutics, improved imaging, and prevention of various clinical conditions. In particular, it is used in drug delivery, diagnosis, imaging, and therapy. There are several nanomaterial-based agents under various stages of development with applications in medicine and some are in Rabbit Polyclonal to CRP1 clinical use. With the changes in disease incidence, mortality, and treatment response for chronic ailments like cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, or metabolic syndrome, there is a need for development of newer technologies for early and rapid diagnosis and new safe drugs for treatment. Nanotechnology-based agents have given many promising leads in such areas. Among many areas, cancer nanotechnology or nanooncology has been a notable area of interest for several groups. Currently there are several nanomaterial-based agents for cancer therapy in the clinics and several others in varying stages of development. This review will discuss the diverse applications of nanotechnology, particularly in the field of cancer therapy. Nanotechnology in medicine A nanoparticle (NP) is defined as the smallest unit (10?9 meters) that can still behave as a whole entity in terms of properties and transport. NPs are particulate dispersions or solid particles ranging from 10 to 100 nm in size (in one dimension) and are being developed to: improve drug bioavailability, abrogate treatment-induced drug resistance, and reduce nonspecific toxicity in the field of medicine. Several recent studies have shown that nanomaterials are able to cross biological membranes and access cells, tissues, and organs that larger-sized particles normally cannot. Based on the chemical nature of the preparations, there are diverse Caftaric acid types of nanoparticles that have been synthesized and evaluated. Nanomaterial-based agents used for drug delivery include carbon NPs, dendrimers, ceramic NPs, chitosan NPs, liposomes, low-density lipoproteins, nanoemulsions, and nanospheres, etc.1 In all these types, drugs can be absorbed onto the surface, entrapped inside, or dissolved within the matrix of the NPs. Recent advances in medicine and health care have greatly improved the life span of humans. This increase in life span also comes with an increased risk for several types of cancer, as cancer is considered as a disease of old age. It is also true that, during aging, individuals present with several comorbidities along with their diagnosis of cancer. Hence there is an increasing need to develop new agents for therapy of cancers that is effective and addresses such associated risks. Currently, chemotherapy using cytotoxic agents is the main stay for treatment of several malignancies.1 Besides, cytotoxic chemotherapy, antihormone therapy, molecular-targeted therapies are also practiced, either single agent or in combination with conventional therapies. But several issues including costs and nontarget toxicity limit such combination treatments. Hence, there is a need to develop novel agents for treatment of cancers, which are less toxic, affordable, and provide better quality of life. Limitations of current cancer treatment modalities Currently available chemotherapy agents are time-tested, and confer good disease-free survival for a limited period of time. Nevertheless, nontarget tissue toxicity and drug resistance curtails the utility of these agents. Thus there is scope to develop newer agents or site-specific delivery systems to transfer these chemotherapeutic agents, which can annul the important obstacles of toxicity and drug resistance. Nanoparticles as delivery vehicles Nanoparticle-based drug-delivery systems have made a remarkable difference in site-specific release of chemotherapeutic agents, owing to their physical and chemical characteristics and biological attributes. Research in this exciting area has been happening for more than two decades, but only in the last decade were several of these formulations released in the market and are now routinely used in clinics. This.